Artificial insemination is done in several stages:
– Ovarian stimulation. Although not necessarily obligatory, the stimulation of ovarian follicles is quite frequent. This allows optimizing the chances of fertilization (obtaining 2 or even 3 follicles instead of one). Ultrasound monitoring is used to monitor the progress of this stage.
– Triggering ovulation. Ovulation is triggered when the following parameters are met: presence of one (or even 2 or 3) mature follicles; endometrium of good thickness; appropriate estradiol level.
– Sperm collection. The spouse’s sperm is collected in the laboratory. A selection of the most efficient and most mobile spermatozoa is made (in order to maximize the chances of fertilization and therefore of pregnancy).
– Artificial insemination or artificial fertilization. This step takes place approximately 36 hours after ovulation is triggered. The doctor uses a thin catheter to deposit the sperm directly into the uterus or cervix.